UNDERSTANDING OF COMMONSENSE
TEACHING AND LEARNING
"Can you tell me how to handle the problems?" I asked my
instructors when I was a student.
"Those who made five mistakes should correct them till they are
all right." One of my instructors always said.
"Try and see how it comes out." Judith would answer me.
Having been a learner and then a teacher in the Chinese educational system
for almost 30 years, I am now a learner again. This experience has lead
me to think about my former schooling and teaching in a way I had never
thought about it before. My personal experience as a learner, teacher
and administrator, and now a learner again, offer a lot of opportunities
to reconsider what and how I learned as well as taught during those years,
and to review those learning and teaching situations which have bothered
me for a long time.
A few months ago my ten-year-old daughter Feifei phoned me from China.
She told me that she had received 100% grade on her English final test.
I was surprised by her announcement since I knew she hated English; I
could not believe she done so well in her English studies. I asked about
the test. She told me her English instructor had asked the class to memorize
all the lessons they had learned from their text book. The students then
drew lots for particular passages and recited from that portion of the
text. That day Feifei was "lucky" -- she drew a lesson she was
able to recite. Actually she could only recite five of the ten lessons
without any mistakes, she had said, and she had drawn one of the five.
Feifei's "good" news made me think about her learning and the
traditional way of teaching. She was happy with her test and on her student
report book she received a 100% grade in English; her English instructor
was pleased too, since her students obviously had learned well. Both Feifei
and her instructor would be rewarded. However, the story of this English
test really caught my attention. I don't know why I was so serious about
Feifei's learning at this time. I know I wouldn't have reacted this way
if the same thing had happened a year ago. Instead, I would have been
very happy to hear her good news. Was Feifei really being taught effectively
at her school? What was her teacher's understanding about effective learning?
Was she considered a successful student in her class? What does her 100%
grade mean to Feifei, to her instructor, to her school principal, and
to Chinese educational system? What had happened to me, I wondered. What
had made me question the Chinese educational system?
I was suddenly uncertain about Feifei's current schooling and my own
former schooling. The story of her English test forced me to reevaluate
what I thought about learning.
I always believed I was a successful learner. I did well all the way
through elementary and secondary school and in university. I was a model
student; everybody around me considered me a competent learner. I was
always among the top five in my class of 40 to 50 students. I thought
I was doing well, too.
Like Feifei, I did whatever teachers asked me to do-I copied materials
and text book passages, I memorized teachers' instructions and met their
requirements, I recited on request. I tried my best to absorb what my
instructors offered. The teachers and I were pleased with my work.
I was told to listen to my teachers by my parents and by the school principal.
I never questioned what I was learning. I totally trusted my teachers
since I believed they knew much more than I did. I should listen to them,
and learn from them. Only recently, after having taught in a university
for ten years, had I found that what I had learned as a student, and later
as a teacher, was not sufficient. To meet the needs of my students, the
needs of my teaching, and my own questions about teaching and learning,
I realized I needed to learn and understand the nature of learning and
teaching in a different way.
Recently, I began to question again whether I really was a successful
learner. I started doubting my "successes" in learning and teaching
as I became more and more uncertain about what I had done, and where I
was heading as a teacher. This issue became central to me since beginning
a course of Action Research; the course forced me to re-examine learning
I still remember my uncertainty, discomforts and frustration at the beginning
of the class in September. I had been told that this course was a bit
tough because it was not structured and different from other research
courses. I was totally lost during the first term, not only because of
the language barrier, for English is not my first language, but also because
of the difficulties in understanding the instruction. I was in a fog for
the first term. Not knowing how to do reflective research really frustrated
me. I don't give up easily; but I felt lost in this course.
Early on, I went to see Judith to say I wanted to drop the course because
I wasn't sure I was ready for it. I couldn't figure out what I should
be doing. I asked if she could tell me what I should be doing in the class.
She was supportive and encouraged me to continue. I gave the class another
I remember one of Judith's reflections. She shared with us her experience
of finding the location for pieces in a difficult jigsaw puzzle-a geological
map of great Britain which she was unable to complete in the end. She
It's like doing action research. I had a ballpark idea of where I was
going but I had to invent a way of working that was unique to this particular
situation. In the end I was able to make sense of all the bits that
had other than shape clues, I was left with quite a bit unresolved.
Inquiry is like that. A lot will be left unresolved. Try to become comfortable
with ambiguity and uncertainty ( Jan. 8th, 1996).
What she explored in her reflection helped me understand that we must
invent a way of working; and we must try to make sense of those moments
and events which bother us in our teaching. We must examine our beliefs
about teaching; we must become comfortable with the ambiguity and uncertainty
of what we are doing.
It was not until the second term, that I felt myself coming out of the
woods and finding a way home. I remembered what had happened to me the
day I was lost in Birds' Hill Park. Lost in the woods, I had tried different
ways to locate a familiar landmark. Since nobody was around, and there
were no road signs to indicate a direction, I had to try a number of different
paths. My wondering and doubt about the action research kept me thinking
hard about what action research was. Judith in her first letter to the
class wrote "This is a just try class. I'm expecting you to take
lots of risks, to explore your reactions to whatever we're reading as
a class, to be open about looking at the problems within your professional
practice" ( Aug. 29, 1995)." I did take a lot of risks to figure
out what the course was about. By trying and inventing I gradually began
to understand how learning occurred for me. It was while I was exploring
Action Research that I discovered I had a wonderful opportunity to examine
myself as a learner and as a teacher. Recalling all my learning experiences
from elementary school to university, I found that what I got from school
was mostly text book knowledge and an attitude of obedience. One important
thing, I realized, was that I was not treated as a learner but as a passive
recipient of knowledge. It seems to me that there was a big gap existing
between learners and instructors in my former schooling.
I was not trained to be a teacher at university. I began my university
career teaching English courses. Like most of my colleagues, I stood at
the front of the classroom. Not knowing how to teach students, I tried
applying the teaching methodologies my teachers had used. Like every instructor,
I lectured and gave assignments to my students based on the course curriculum.
I corrected students mistakes in and out of class. I spent a lot of time
assisting students who had difficulties learning. I wanted to teach them
all I knew. I was proud of my students since most of them did well in
their final tests. I believed the test scores reflected how well they
had learned in class.
I always believed that if teachers were knowledgeable and experts in a
field of study, their students would become knowledgeable and competent,
too. In other words, whether students would be good at their work or not
was based on their teachers' teaching performance.
John S. Mayher (1990) in his book Uncommonsense refers to such commonsense
teaching beliefs as "teacher knows best." Mayher describes the
metaphors which reflect a commonsense perspective "the learner as
an empty vessel to be filled with the content of education..., the learner
as sponge to absorb information and squeeze it back out when appropriate,
and the learner who practices through drills to develop good habits and
avoid bad ones" (p.50). Mayher's description certainly fit what I
believed as a student and again as a teacher. Mayher named this kind of
traditional teaching as commonsense teaching. I realized my entire educational
experience had been based on commonsense beliefs.
I remember one university language instructor always encouraged us by
saying "With no pain, there is no gain. If you want to master a foreign
language, you have to memorize all those texts you learned from the class
and memorize the vocabulary as best as you can." That was the tip
he offered to me when I was an obedient student. Later I offered this
same advice to my students.
Feifei's recent phone call brought to mind some images of my early university
"Those who made more than five mistakes in the quiz should correct
them after class..."
"Until you have them all done correctly," my neighbour Ming
murmurs in his low voice, yet, all of us can hear him. The class is
We all knew what our instructor would announce after we finished the
routine quiz every Monday morning. We nick named him Mr. "Five
The class was over and the silence was over. Some of the students left
their front seats and moved to the last row since there were some spare
chairs against the wall.
"For Heaven's sake, why do we have this dumb class on Monday morning?
It makes me sick all week." complained my best friend Yan, who
is always among the victims. Although she is one of the smart students
in the class, she is too smart and too confident.
"I don't think I have made five mistakes, though I can't say I
am 100% right. I will have something to show him next Monday,"
"The definitions he gave us this morning are different from what
I read in another reference book. Who is right?" wondered Bing.
"I can't even see the purpose of this kind of punishment and it
is useless just to recite the definitions and the usage example,"
"Yes, I agree with you guys. But we have to do whatever he wants
us to do, or would you like to stay here for one more year, I have had
enough. Haven't you?" asked Hong.
"I wonder why Mr. Five Mistakes likes to punish us? Is it good
for us? I don't think he hates us or he hates teaching us. You know,
last time I went to see him about my mistakes, he explained the rules
to me and helped me correct those mistakes. I just don't know why he
can't do something better to help us understand those dead rules by
practising them in an interesting way," May complained.
The bell rang.
What happened in my grammar class every Monday morning during that year
represented what was happening, and is still happening in almost every
classroom in China. The belief that external knowledge can and must be
transmitted from teacher to student and what really counts is the students'
mastery of information. This is the dominant practice in our educational
system. Therefore, students are taught and later tested on what they have
been taught. Like my daughter, who was tested on material she had memorized,
we too were tested every Monday on what we had been taught in class.
One of the reasons why the instructor would test every Monday class was
based on his belief that "every question has a right answer."
Learning the right answer became one of the foundations of school learning.
If students could do their exercises right that meant that they had learned.
It was 2 o'clock, most of the students had already put on their earphones
and were listening to the story I had recorded for them as a warm-up exercise.
Sitting at the master desk in the language lab, facing them, I noticed
three places were still empty. Looking around and checking the name list
I knew who was absent. Ten minutes later, in walked the three with sleepy
eyes, wearing walkman headphones. I stared at them as they came into the
room. When their eyes met with mine, they took off their headphones, put
on the tape recorder earphones fixed at their desks, and started listening
with the others.
Later, while we were talking about the story the students had heard at
the beginning of the class, one of the three guys, Yan, leaned over his
desk and rested his head on his arms with his face down. I was not sure
if he was sleeping or not; it was clear he was not listening. This was
a very special class with multi-level English. Some students were high
school graduates with a little bit of English, some of them had been sent
by their companies with no English background. They came with different
learning perspectives and they came from different regions of the country.
The three guys, from the same region, with little English proficiency,
needed special help. Yet they often refused my offers of assistance.
Yan was still sleeping. To confirm whether he was sleeping or not I hooked
up my earphone line to his using the master control. What I heard was
hard rock music. He was not sleeping. I did not know what I should do.
I wondered how often he'd done that before. I stopped all the recorders
using the master control, and I addressed them through my mike "Now
it is time to enjoy hard rock." Everybody looked at me with surprise.
Then I turned on the machine; all of us could hear the loud and strong
rhythm of the music. Yan lifted his head. His face was red and he dared
not look at me.
I didn't know what to do with him, I had tried to help him in many ways.
I helped him individually in his speaking and listening. He showed no
interest in improving his English. He did what ever he liked to do. I
could not slow down my teaching only because of him. At twenty, he was
the oldest student in the class-good at tennis and swimming, with several
girl friends. He wasn't dumb, but he was certainly choosing not to learn.
I could not understand him. Later, one of his girl friends told me that
he behaved the same way in other courses, too. He did not want to learn
English because he thought it was no use.
At the time it seemed to me there shouldn't be such kind of students in
the class. Everybody in the classroom should listen to the instructor
like I had done when I was a student. My expectation of the students was
based on the belief that they came to school for knowledge, and I was
there to teach them. However, Yan he rejected the offer. I saw it as a
failure in my teaching.
I'll never forget teaching Feifei to play piano when she was four. I
struggled to have her practice rather than play with her favorite blocks.
Like all mothers, I wanted my only daughter to have a better life in a
rapidly growing competitive society. I was told by friends that playing
piano at a young age may have a positive effect on children's school learning.
It might even be useful for future jobs. So the whole family decided to
buy a piano for my daughter when she was four. The task of teaching her
to play fell to me. I was the only person in the family who knew a bit
of music and had some basic knowledge of how to play. I knew I was not
good enough to teach her so I had a pianist teach her and I just helped
We did reasonably well at the beginning. Feifei enjoyed playing the big
toy which could make different sounds everyday after she came home from
the kindergarten. She would play for half an hour then she would tell
me she wanted to play with her blocks which she never tired of. She was
really good at building. At five and six, the tough times came. Feifei
was not easily controlled. Often we both practised her assignment together.
The assignments were becoming more demanding. She just hated practicing
with me. She would like to play for herself and to change the tune and
even the rhythm of the music. She refused to listen to me. I felt I had
to make her practice according to the instructions. Sometimes I yelled
at her. We often bargained with each other over the exercises she had
to practice and the blocks she wanted to play with.
One thing happened which really hurt both of us. In grade one, Feifei
was supposed to give a performance for her instructor and the other children
taking lessons. We practised for a month. The piece Old Black Joe that
the instructor assigned was beyond her level although the instructor believed
she could handle it. Her problem was that she could not understand the
theme of the piece. She could play very well technically but she had no
sense of the theme. When I demonstrated how the old black man working
in the cotton field in the summer felt with facial expressions, she kept
laughing at me. I got so mad at her. She was not serious about the music.
When the day of the recital came, she still couldn't interpret the piece.
I would not let her go. I phoned the instructor in the afternoon and told
him that we couldn't come. When my daughter heard, she burst into tears,
ran into her room, and shut herself in for the whole evening. We had spent
almost a month practising that darned piece. She really wanted to perform
for other kids, yet, she lost the chance. I was sure that I really hurt
her. We stopped playing for almost a month.
Being a mother, like a teacher, I should understand my daughter. I must
consider her real dilemma and her real situation. It was not her fault.
It was me who failed to make meaning for her about that piece. I never
expected her to be a pianist as a career. I just hoped that playing piano
would help her intellectual development. Actually, I had overdone it.
I tried to force her to accept what I believed instead of letting her
express her own interpretation. My expectations were far beyond her capability.
It resulted in failure for her.
From Mayher's Uncommonsense I learned that traditional ways of teaching
and learning are based on the beliefs that "there is an external,
objective world which can be, and largely is, known and understood...,
this external knowledge can and must be transmitted from teacher to pupil..."(p.
67). As Mayher contends "students...are expected to function as a
kind of recording and playback device receiving the transmission of the
expert teacher and texts and then feeding them back essentially unchanged
in essays and tests" (p. 72).
As a result of my own learning experiences and those of my daughter,
as well as my experience as a teacher, I have come to see that a commonsense
view of learning and teaching continues to dominate our schooling system
and our daily life. Mayher (1990) describes in his book Uncommonsense
a similar experience teaching Robert Frost's poem "Stopping by Woods
on a Snowy Evening." The reason he chose this poem to teach in his
class was because he liked it and he understood it, and he thought his
students would like it, too. He read the poem to them, "but nothing
happened. There were awkward silences among a group that was normally
eager and talkative. If I asked a factual question, they could and would
answer it but there was no energy, no speculation, no spark" (p.
5). Then some students asked questions like "Why did he stop? Wouldn't
he just want to get in out of the wet?" The Californian students
just couldn't share with him the beauty of the silence of the snow fall
in the woods. It had a different meaning for them than it did for him.
The experiences held different meaning for my daughter and my special
student. The meaning of the experiences was also different for me. My
daughter had no experience from which to understand the sorrowful life
of a black slave. The black slave's sorrow meant nothing to her. It was
beyond her ability to interpret these feelings. This was the same for
Yan, my special student. Learning English made no sense to him because
he wasn't ready to learn. No matter how hard I tried to help him, there
couldn't be any success.
What happened in my grammar class demonstrated the same thing. The instructor
apparently wanted to teach us well. He believed that if we memorized what
he told us we would master the language because we would know the rules.
Actually he forgot one thing. You can make people memorize something,
but you can't make them understand. Learning can happen only when learners
make sense for themselves. As a teacher, I must understand how learning
occurs. We must try to make knowledge meaningful for students by applying
different teaching methods.
Learning is a collaborative process of making meaning.
Mayher indicated that human beings are active meaning makers who are continually
learning-making personal knowledge-when they can act according to their
We know that learning happens not only in schools. Learning goes on all
the time. It happens from the day we were born to the last day of our
Frank Smith contends "learning is unconscious, effortless, incidental,
vicarious, and essentially collaborative" (1988). I think about the
time I first learned how to cook rice.
Cooking rice is a basic skill in Chinese cooking since rice is the main
food for our Chinese people. Everybody should know how to cook it, especially
the girls in the family.
I had my first cooking experience when I was nine. One day, my mom could
not come home to make lunch for me. She had to go to the head office to
submit a working report. She left me some money and asked me to buy something
to eat. I decided instead to save the money to buy a book which I really
wanted. I resolved to cook something to eat for myself.
I helped my mom cook almost everyday. I thought I knew how to cook. I
decided to prepare some rice. Although it is the easiest thing to cook,
I had never attempted to prepare rice myself before. I tried recalling
how my mom did it. I knew I needed to put some rice in the rice maker
and added some water and then put the rice maker on the stove. But how
much rice I should put in the rice maker and how much water I should pour.
How long should it be cooked, and how much heat should I use? I realized
I had never carefully watched how my mom did all those things. I was lost!
However, I was so hungry, I decided to try anyway. My basic cooking knowledge
told me nothing could go seriously wrong if I poured more water in the
rice maker and adjusted medium heat and kept an eye on it. I remained
by the stove and kept watching the rice maker to see how the rice was
doing. The only thing I worried about was setting a fire. I kept pouring
water into the rice maker to prevent the rice burning. It took almost
an hour to make the rice-actually what I made was porridge.
I never told anyone what I made for lunch that day, but the lesson I learned
from it was very important. It helped me a lot in my later cooking. I
do enjoy cooking, especially food I really like. Whenever, I go somewhere
to eat something which I really enjoy, I try my best to learn how it is
made. I like to try to make it myself and keep improving my skills until
I am satisfied with what I make. My experience learning to cook rice has
helped me learn to make pizza and muffins for myself since I came to Canada.
I really like to eat pizza and muffin. I have tried many times to figure
out the ingredients of the pizza dough. I tried adding baking soda. I
found later that was not right. Then, I tried some yeast in the dough.
When the pizza was made I could tell that the dough was not perfect. It
took me sometime to figure out how to make the pizza dough. Now I know
that the dough should be very soft and to let it rise for some time before
making pizza. I do have a recipe for making the pizza dough, yet I like
It was a Monday afternoon in early March, one month before the end of
the term. I didn't know what was happening to me. I couldn't write anything.
I couldn't focus my mind on teaching and learning; all my stories seemed
to have evaporated. My mind was blank.
Feeling uncomfortable about having nothing to share with Judith the others
in class that evening, around four o'clock I forced myself to see Judith
for help. I told her I couldn't write anything. My mind was empty, I couldn't
find a focus. I didn't know what to write. She told me just to write-to
let it come out no matter how it would fit. I left her office with this
wondering in my head. It was easy to say "keep writing" and
"write what's in your mind" but it was really hard to know what
to write. In spite of the fact that Judith repeatedly told us: "just
let it go and don't worry about words, grammar, structures." I just
couldn't let my mind wander anywhere it liked. I was simply not used to
this type of writing strategy.
I am used to having a focus before I start writing. Otherwise, I just
don't know where the writing may go. Judith told me to write my thoughts,
forgetting about focusing for the moment, just let ideas flow. It should
have been easy to do that; it was not. However, I decided I had to try.
On the way back to my office I thought I had to trust this type of learning
strategy and practice it in the same way I learned to eat with a knife
and a fork.
I didn't bring chopsticks with me when I came to Canada since I thought
I could use a knife and a fork. It was not a big deal, I thought. But
during the first meal on the plane to Canada, I wondered if I hadn't made
a serious mistake by not bringing them with me.The meal consisted of Italian
noodles, similar to Chinese noodles, but thinner and harder. I couldn't
get them in my with the fork. I saw my neighbour twisting her fork, twining
the noodles around it, then easily putting them in her mouth. I tried
it that way, but I made some noise which embarrassed me and made me uncomfortable.
Next I decided to cut the noodles into small pieces-I thought that way
it might be easier to get them on the fork.Wrong again. My neighbour noticing
my difficulty kindly showed me how to twist the fork. It took me long
time to finish that unforgettable meal.
Trying a new writing strategy was s similar situation. On several occasions
Judith had encouraged me to just write and not be bothered if I couldn't
"focus." Yet I could not get used to this strategy, just like
I could not use a knife and a fork easily. I knew how to write something
only when I had a focus and I was uncomfortable just trying. I don't know
what prompted me to think about that first "Canadian" meal.
I wrote about it. When I'd finished the account I could see a connection
with my writing difficulty.
So what! What kind of learning and teaching should we expect to take
place in our schools? What kind of beliefs should we have in our educational
systems? What should I do with what I have learned from this action research
work when I return to China to teach? Will people there accept these ideas
in teaching and learning?
It was in April Fool's evening-our last class of the year. Most of us
arrived that evening with different reactions, different feelings about
"Well, what thoughts and reflections do you have about your experience
in this class?" Judith began.
There was a silence for a moment. For me it was not a hard question,
but it was a big question. It had taken me almost a year to figure out
what the class was about. People started murmuring and whispering with
"Honestly speaking, I didn't feel engaged in the class..."
I had the same feeling in the first term and it took me another term
to find out that I had to involve myself in the experience. Sometimes
I didn't feel certain about what I was doing. I just kept trying, and
taking risks. I would say to myself, "It is worth trying."
"I can do perfectly well in my other courses. It was not hard to
write papers for those classes. But I find it hard to write in this
class. I have lots I want to say and I'm not sure how to say it,..."
"I am still not sure what I should write for this class,"
"I still have problems writing a conclusion. I find it hard to
say 'so what?'" I said.
"Go back and read Mayher's last chapter and think about how what
you've learned could affect your teaching back in China," replied
Like the others, I, too, have difficulty dealing with the "so what."
"Do I have to write about it in my piece?" Looks as if I have
two answers: a commonsense teacher would say "Yes, you have to;"
uncommonsense instructors might respond "Well, it depends."
My stories about learning and teaching in different settings clearly show
the distinctions between commonsense and uncommonsense views of teaching
Commonsense schooling and commonsense teachers make commonsense demands
on teaching and learning. It is rare for "commonsense" teachers
to question a fundamental tenet of schooling: students learn what teachers
teach. They believe they know best; that it is possible to determine in
advance what students need to learn. They also believe they know the optimum
sequence and means through which students should learn it. Whatever students
have learned outside school has little or no significance for the curriculum
of the classroom (Mayher, 1990).
"Uncommonsense" people believe that "a learner's capacities
to solve problems and to perform intellectual tasks are powerfully influenced
by the way the problems are posed and by the learner's interpretation
of what the tasks entail" (p. 76). According to this uncommonsense
point of view, learning happens in context. Experiments showed that when
tasks were embedded in a context which was sufficiently meaningful to
children, they were enabled to try to comprehend what was requested.
The world does not come to us in a preinterpreted form. Rather it is constructed
by our interpretation of our experiences (Mayher, 1990). Learning happens
when we engage ourselves in learning. We need to explore, take risks and
make connections in what we are learning. My learning experience in this
class and my learning experiences in my daily life outside of classroom
show that conscious reflection on what you have learned and, crucially,
on how you've learned it, should play a central role in the learning process
(Mayher, 1990). The most significant learning that one can accomplish
in school is to learn how to learn.
So, why have I started thinking in this "uncommonsense" way?
Uncommonsense makes better sense to me now. My own learning experiences
in this action research course are a powerful illustration of uncommonsense
I didn't know anything about action research before the first class.
I felt very uncomfortable and frustrated during the first term. I couldn't
accept these new ideas, for my traditional paradigm was built on a solid
foundation of commonsense teaching and learning. I was confused and hoped
that Judith would tell me what I should do in and out of class. I have
struggled with my traditional ways of thinking all the way through the
course. By exploring those critical incidents of my former teaching and
learning experiences, analyzing those tensions which have bothered me
for long time, by engaging myself in a collaborative learning environment,
by taking risks and trying new methods of learning, I did learn a lot
in class, and I did build up new beliefs about learning and teaching.
I am learning not though memorizing but understanding. I am learning not
through taking tests and answering questions set by the instructor but
by searching, by asking and answering questions by myself. I am learning!
So what? What will I do when I return to China? How will I teach my students-in
commonsense or uncommonsense ways? Can I challenge the commonsense by
applying uncommonsense theory in teaching? Will people accept the new
ideas, the anti-traditional? These are great challenges I will face.
Education in China is believed to play a key role in the modernization
and reconstruction of the country. It will take a long time for people
to realize the crucial needs for changing educational beliefs. Chinese
traditions and culture will be the main obstacles to accomplish educational
reform for teachers and administrators. Even parents may not support these
new views. However, the economic reform in China may change people's beliefs.
I can't wait until the time comes. I would like to keep doing research,
report the outcome, encourage people to think about new ideas. By doing
research I'd like to show the possibilities of teaching by applying uncommonsense
theory. Actually, I can't reach any conclusions in this paper. I need
to continue working until I find more answers for my questions. I need
to apply the theory in a real teaching situations in China.
Mayher, John S. 1990 Uncommonsense: Theoretical Practice in Language Education.
Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook
Smith, Frank 1988 Collaborating in the Classroom. In: Joining the Literacy
Club. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books.
as Inquiry ] [ Literacy & Learning ]